Avalanches in India often happened in isolated and remote areas of the towns and villages in the mountain regions of the country where help takes time to come in case of such Avalanches and Landslides. Trade often takes the information about the occurrence of such events and the days of damage to the district and state level to get in shape. For these reasons, landslides and avalanches have on the status of major natural disasters, although the area affected and the population is quite low.
Landslides in Himachal: Landslides are a common phenomenon and recurrent in the various mountain ranges of Kerala in India from the Northern Himalayas. Areas those are prone to landslides and Eastern ID Western Ghats, Nilgiris, the Vindhyachal, the mountains in the Northeast and the great Himalayas of Himachal. The frequency of landslides in these regions is a recurring feature of the most daring and after periods of heavy rainfall.
Landslide Zonation Mapping is a method of modern days to identify areas prone to landslides and is in use in India since the 1980s. In this method, the vulnerability of different parts of a region prone to landslides in relation to past events, the steepness of the slopes, the conditions of the rocks examined, and rainfall rates and the different areas are “critical” as very high, as high, moderate, low, very low, showing the probability of occurrence of landslides in these areas. Some of the regions for which the zoning maps as already in-completed or is nearing completion are:
Garhwal Himalaya including Yamuna valley
Satluj valley in Manali Himachal Pradesh
Shimla Himachal Pradesh
The roads in Shimla Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir and Uttaranchal are particularly vulnerable to landslides. This phenomenon is alarming proportions in the mountainous districts of North Bengal, Sikkim and North-east states.
Snow Avalanches in India:
The Himalayas is good for the occurrence of avalanches in the western Himalayas particularly, ie the snowy regions of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttaranchal known. In general terms, is an area of approximately 200,000 square km in three states prone to avalanches. Avalanches occur in the eastern parts of the Himalayas, but forests and dense vegetation in east and northeast of the Himalayas (due to heavy rains in the mountains) to act as bond strength and inhibit excessive accumulation of snow and slide. The western Himalayas are many endangered sites prone to avalanches, where hundreds of people lose their lives and the social and economic life interrupted every year. The formations of zones of this region are 3000-5000 meters.
In Jammu and Kashmir, the most affected areas in the upper layers of cashmere and Gurez there are valleys, Kargil and Ladakh and some major roads. In Himachal Pradesh, which are prone areas: Chamba, Kullu, Kinnaur and Spiti Lahoul. Specific villages are prone to landslides have been identified in these districts of Himachal Pradesh. In the Garhwal Himalayas in Uttaranchal, Chamoli Tehri-Garhwal is affected areas’ avalanche problem. Zoning and mapping for areas prone to landslides occur, is planning areas made snow avalanche sites and identified three types of zones in relation to the frequency and intensity of avalanches by an avalanche in the act. In other words, evaluate the planning of the area half the dangers of avalanches under the vulnerable point. The three types of avalanches areas are:
First Red Zone: The most dangerous area, where avalanches are common and have a back pressure of more than 3 tons per square meter.
Second Blue Zone: When the avalanche energy of less than 3 tons per square meter in which they live and other construction may be allowed – no doubt the design, but such areas must be free of warning.
Third Yellow Zone: where avalanches occur only occasionally.
Type and amount of damages
There is no doubt that everything that comes in the form of a landslide or avalanche, will suffer serious damage and may even be buried or destroyed completely. All in a landslide is not survive if the rocks and mud to slide underneath.
Landslides: Increasingly, combinations of large numbers of landslides and rock falls rock falls. Containing all the mass movements (earth, gravel or stones). The process of mass movement of soil creep can vary from slow to sudden and abrupt rocks. Landslides, mudslides, as well, ranging from a low angle and rather slowly glides known vertical sudden drops.
Based on the type of movement, the relative speed of movement and type of material involved, landslides in 5 species are designated as follows:
Fall of earth flow
Remains of slides
The debris falls
Landslides, which is reproduced in different mountainous or hilly country (against avalanches, which are limited to the snowy regions of the Himalayas), causing damage that is more diverse and more widespread. Acceleration of the population increases, the quarries have, mining and construction near unstable slopes, ill-conceived development activities in mountain areas at risk, led to more landslides and damage. Apart from the catastrophic damage suffered by communities in or near unstable slopes from their homes along with people or property can be destroyed by a landslide, the damage caused by landslides paralyzing, by (i) roads and (ii) the productive land suffered. Damage to roads is a big factor leading to considerable distress and economic loss. The disappearance of farmland and the upper floor has the agricultural potential of the affected area to that of their already meagre livelihoods.